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Simple models that manifest input impedances of arterial systems are compared. An improvement upon documented two-, three-, and five-element models is presented. The classical two-element model (the windkessel) accounts for the lowest frequency components, and the three-element model (the modified windkessel) accounts for both low-and high-frequency components of the spectrum of interest. Five-element models, however, by allowing for reflection, can account for principal features over the entire frequency range of interest.