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"Rack and stack" instrumentation has been used for many years to create systems for testing hybrid-RF modules. More recently, these systems have been modified to test monolithic RFICs. While these systems may offer a low initial hardware price, they suffer from inflexibility, long programming times, and throughputs that are much too slow to cost-effectively test RFICs in volumes that are now required. This paper will review traditional "rack and stack" system block diagram strengths and weaknesses, and briefly review the basics of a generic network analyzer. It will then, in a step-by-step fashion, evolve the network analyzer block diagram into a modern RF-ATE measurement system -- with digital technology -- that dramatically increases system throughput and flexibility.