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The purpose of this paper is to discuss modification of unit commitment, economic dispatch, regulation and frequency regulation controls when the level of wind generation capacity is significant. A wind farm penetration constraint is determined, that limits worst case wind generation change from an array due to a thunderstorm to be less than the worst first contingency loss of conventional generation resource or commitment. The farm penetration constraint only acts as an indicator that additional spinning reserve, load following, and unloadable generation capability is required through adjustment of unit commitment and AGC controls if the farm penetration constraint was violated. A discussion of the methodology, costs, and benefits of changing unit commitment when WECS generation is significant (and either satisfies or violates this farm penetration constraint) is then discussed. A further discussion of the modification of regulation and economic dispatch controls to exploit the changes in response rate capability provided by the unit commitment is also discussed. A modified echelon penetration constraint that limits instantaneous rate of change and change from a wind array that must be handled by governor frequency regulation and regulation controls. This constraint is imposed to limit cycling of units which can incur additional operating and maintainance costs on conventional steam units and possibly safety concerns on nuclear units.
Date of Publication: Jan. 1983