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A discussion of various types of x-band airborne radars is presented together with their systematic development through the years to the present time. Starting with simple, low pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) radars for measuring radar-target range, airborne radar development proceeded with more sophisticated high PRF Doppler radars where radar-target range and range rate were measured simultaneously. The use of Doppler (frequency) in signal processing allowed the separation of moving from nonmoving targets (ground), enabling the detection of moving targets in the presence of ground clutter. More recent developments in waveform generation and selection has resulted in the development of medium PRF radars, whereby a greater degree of tactical flexibility in target detection is achieved by combining the desirable features of both low and high PRF radars. Part of the available literature gives an overview, together with a specific example of the design and performance of an airborne medium PRF radar. Here, however, the systematic evolution of these radars is emphasized and the necessary theoretical background is developed for their performance calculations. Modern day airborne radars may be equipped with all three modes of operation, low, medium, and high PRF, allowing the operator to utilize the mode best suited for the tactical encounter. Low PRF and high PRF radars have been described elsewhere and are given here primarily for the sake of completeness and for the necessary background for developing medium PRF radar equations. They are also needed for developing the reasons why medium PRF radars came into being.