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Inside Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Extracting the Refractive Index From Spatial-Spectral Mode Images

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3 Author(s)
de Lange, V. ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Victoria Univ., BC ; Kuei Sun ; Gordon, R.

We present a method to extract the internal effective refractive index of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) from its transverse mode images. High spatial and spectral resolution mode images of an oxide-guided VCSEL were obtained using an etalon filter and an imaging spectrometer. The refractive index and the oxide radius were extracted from the field intensity distribution and the spectral wavelength of the laser modes. The procedure was repeated at two different currents and both gave a refractive index step of 0.046 plusmn 0.006 with a 14.1-mum oxide diameter. With several degrees of freedom for error available in the refractive index extraction, this method may be extended to ion-implanted, photonic crystal, and noncircular devices

Published in:

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:43 ,  Issue: 3 )