By Topic

Inside Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Extracting the Refractive Index From Spatial-Spectral Mode Images

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$33 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

3 Author(s)
Victoria de Lange ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Victoria Univ., BC ; Kuei Sun ; Reuven Gordon

We present a method to extract the internal effective refractive index of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) from its transverse mode images. High spatial and spectral resolution mode images of an oxide-guided VCSEL were obtained using an etalon filter and an imaging spectrometer. The refractive index and the oxide radius were extracted from the field intensity distribution and the spectral wavelength of the laser modes. The procedure was repeated at two different currents and both gave a refractive index step of 0.046 plusmn 0.006 with a 14.1-mum oxide diameter. With several degrees of freedom for error available in the refractive index extraction, this method may be extended to ion-implanted, photonic crystal, and noncircular devices

Published in:

IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics  (Volume:43 ,  Issue: 3 )