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This paper presents a model-based hybrid tracking system for outdoor augmented reality in urban environments enabling accurate, realtime overlays for a handheld device. The system combines several well-known approaches to provide a robust experience that surpasses each of the individual components alone: an edge-based tracker for accurate localisation, gyroscope measurements to deal with fast motions, measurements of gravity and magnetic field to avoid drift, and a back store of reference frames with online frame selection to re-initialize automatically after dynamic occlusions or failures. A novel edge-based tracker dispenses with the conventional edge model, and uses instead a coarse, but textured, 3D model. This yields several advantages: scale-based detail culling is automatic, appearance-based edge signatures can be used to improve matching and the models needed are more commonly available. The accuracy and robustness of the resulting system is demonstrated with comparisons to map-based ground truth data.
Date of Conference: 22-25 Oct. 2006