By Topic

Introduction to the Theory of VLF Propagation

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

1 Author(s)
Wait, J.R. ; Central Radio Propagation Laboratory, National Bureau of Standards, Bouilder, Colo.

This paper is a self-contained exposition of the conventional theory of propagation of VLF radio waves. The model is a spherical earth surrounded by a concentric ionosphere. Although the model is highly idealized, the theory is still quite involved. The complexities arise from the long wavelengths inherent in such problems. In Section I the elementary geometrical or hop theory for VLF is considered. This includes a discussion of ionospheric reflection coefficients and the influence of multiple reflections. The validity of the model is established by a comparison with experimental data. In Section II, the diffractive corrections near the caustics of the ray systems are obtained. These provide a means to extend the theory to points near and beyond the horizon point for the individual hops or rays. In Section III, the waveguide mode theory is expounded. A number of approximations and simplifications are introduced in order to illustrate principles. References to more detailed analyses which use higher order approximations are given. Finally, in Section IV, the influence of a stratified ionosphere is treated by using a two-layer model. The material in this paper was included in the Summer (1961) Lecture Course on Radio Propagation given at the Boulder Laboratories of the National Bureau of Standards, and in earlier graduate courses, at the University of Colorado.

Published in:

Proceedings of the IRE  (Volume:50 ,  Issue: 7 )