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Two basic disciplines underlying the design and development of solid-state electronic devices are: 1) the design and analysis of the device from the electron physics standpoint, and 2) the materials technology by which suitable structures in solids are prepared to fulfill the conditions specified in the device design. This article considers the second discipline, and reviews the basic steps of purification of materials, crystal growth, and processes such as diffusion and alloying for fabricating structures. Germanium, silicon, and compound semiconductors are discussed. An historical review is given, and directions of future developments are indicated.