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Historically, vacuum technology has played an important part in the development of electron tubes. The operating characteristics of many early devices were dependent on the degree of vacuum obtained. The Roentgen X-ray tube and the Braun cathode-ray tube are examples of these. Improvement in vacuum technology made possible the development of many truly high-vacuum devices in which performance is independent of the inclosed gas pressure. Many modem electronic components no longer operate in a vacuum but are dependent on vacuum technology in their fabrication. These include microminiature circuit elements, cryotrons, photoconductor-electroluminescent devices and ferromagnetic memory systems-all dependent on vacuum evaporated films. Electronic components have also played an important part in the development of modem vacuum technology. These include thermistor gauges, electronic ionization gauges, ion pumps and electronic leak-detection equipment. This paper is devoted to a review of modem ultra-high vacuum systems and the electronic components used in them.