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Fluctuation Noise in Semiconductor Space-Charge Regions

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1 Author(s)
Giacoletto, L.J. ; Dept. of Elec. Engrg. and Div. of Engrg. Res., Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich.

In addition to noise arising from the circuit, a semiconductor diodic junction must contain a basic noise source. This basic noise mechanism is due to fluctuations in the ionization state of the impurity atoms which occur at random relative to the probability of ionization, w=nD+/nD. In an n-type semiconductor, a neutral impurity that suddenly becomes ionized releases a mobile electron whose movement forms a noise current pulse; similarly for the elemental deionization event. The net result is a short-circuited noise current given approximately by the formula, 2 IIDA TV (1 -we) q(VB + Vc)]- TD+ w kT Using typical numbers, this formula indicates that the fundamental noise associated with a 0.3 ¿¿fd depletion layer capacitance at 100 Mc is equivalent to the thermal noise of a 6-ohm series resistor at 40°K and a 0.1-ohm series resistor at 300°K. Experimental verification of this type of noise is not known. When it is observed experimentally, a new method for evaluating some of the basic properties of semiconductors will be available, and computations of minimum noise factor of parametric amplifiers will be possible.

Published in:

Proceedings of the IRE  (Volume:49 ,  Issue: 5 )

Date of Publication:

May 1961

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