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The Radiansphere around a Small Antenna

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1 Author(s)
Wheeler, H.A. ; Wheeler Labs., Great Neck, N.Y.

The "radiansphere" is the boundary between the near field and the far field of a small antenna. Its radius is one radianlength (¿/2¿), at which distance the three terms of the field are equal in magnitude. A "small" antenna is one somewhat smaller than the radiansphere, but it has a "sphere of influence" occupying the radiansphere. The power that theoretically can be intercepted by a hypothetical isotropic antenna is that which flows through the radiansphere or its cross section, the "radiancircle." From a small electric dipole, the far field of radiation is identified as a retarded magnetic field. Between two such dipoles, the far mutual impedance is that of mutual inductance, expressed in terms of space properties and the radiansphere. A small coil wound on a perfect spherical magnetic core is conceived as an ideal small antenna. Its radiation power factor is equal to the ratio of its volume over that of the radiansphere. A fraction of this ratio is obtainable in various forms of small antennas (C or L) occupying a comparable amount of space. A radiation shield, in the form of a conducting shell the size of the radiansphere, enables separate measurement of radiation resistance and loss resistance.

Published in:

Proceedings of the IRE  (Volume:47 ,  Issue: 8 )