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Noise in Junction Transistors

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1 Author(s)
van der Ziel, A. ; Elec. Eng. Dept., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.

This paper gives a survey of the problem of shot noise and flicker noise in junction diodes and junction transistors. After a short introduction in Section I, the theory of shot effect is presented in Section II. First a simplified low-frequency theory is given and the close correspondence with earlier (heuristic) equivalent circuits is indicated. Then the theory is given in a more rigorous form, both from a collective point of view (Petritz, North, and van der Ziel) and from a corpuscular point of view (Uhlir, van der Ziel and Becking). Finally the conditions under which the theory holds are summed up and the possibility of deviations is discussed. Section III gives Fonger's theory of flicker noise in diodes and transistors and incorporates his discussion of base modulation effects into the equivalent noise circuit in a manner that differs somewhat from Fonger's original presentation. Section IV gives the experimental verification of the theory by Guggenbuehl and Strutt, Nielsen, Hanson and van der Ziel and others and also discusses some further experimental material. Finally, the problem of low-noise circuits, the choice of the operating point of the transistor, and the design criteria for low-noise transistors is discussed. Section V extends Fonger's theory of base modulation effects to shot effect and discusses possible consequences of this effect.

Published in:

Proceedings of the IRE  (Volume:46 ,  Issue: 6 )