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This paper describes briefly charge-carrier multiplication, avalanche breakdown, and the effect of a greater than unity in junction transistors. The electrical characteristics in the Â¿> 1 region and for the transition from Â¿ 1 are discussed. One example of the useful applications is included in order to discuss some of the effects of the transistor parameters on circuit performance and to show the order of magnitude of the operating parameters. If the variation of a with emitter current is considered, it is found that even without base connection (IB=0) the transistor can have a region of negative differential resistance. Such a two-terminal device with nonthermal negative resistance is useful in various circuits.