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Average Radio-Ray Refraction in the Lower Atmosphere

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1 Author(s)
Schulkin, M. ; U. S. Navy Underwater Sound Laboratory, New London, Conn.

Existing corrections for atmospheric refraction in radio-field intensity computations are reviewed with respect to their application to computation of ray bending. A practical scheme is presented for calculating atmospheric refraction of radio-frequency rays numerically from radiosonde data. Ray-bending computations are made for a range of climatological conditions for rays passing entirely through the atmosphere and arriving or departing tangentially at the earth's surface. Some discussion is included regarding the uncertainty in refractive-index computations from meteorological sounding data.

Published in:

Proceedings of the IRE  (Volume:40 ,  Issue: 5 )