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Transistor Electronics: Imperfections, Unipolar and Analog Transistors

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1 Author(s)
Shockley, W. ; Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., Murray Hill, N.J.

The electronic mechanisms that are of chief interest in transistor electronics are discussed from the point of view of solid-state physics. The important concepts of holes, electrons, donors, acceptors, and deathnium (recomibination center for holes and electrons) are treated from a unified viewpoint as imperfections in a nearly perfect crystal. The behavior of an excess electron as a negative particle moving with random thermal motion and drifting in an electric field is described in detail. A hole is similar to an electron in all regards save sign of charge. Some fundamental experiments have been performed with transistor techniques and exhibit clearly the behavior of holes and electrons. The interactions of holes, electrons, donors, acceptors, and deathnium give rise to the properties of p-n junctions, p-n junction transistors, and Zener diodes. Point-contact transistors are not understood as well from a fundamental viewpoint. A new class of unipolar transistors is discussed. Of these, the analog transistor is described in terms of analogy to a vacuum tube.

Published in:

Proceedings of the IRE  (Volume:40 ,  Issue: 11 )