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Analyzing implications of long-range energy demand policies requires the development of special modeling methodologies heretofore unfamiliar to both economists and engineers. This is due to long time horizons imposed by the nature of energy technologies and data constraints imposed by the structural complexity of the economic system. This paper describes the unique characteristics of energy demand modeling, the interdisciplinary nature of the problem, and the role of physical scientists in its solution. Four problem areas are described, through which engineers could enter the field of energy demand analysis on familiar methodological turf and contribute to the solution of the nation's energy problems.