By Topic


Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$33 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

2 Author(s)
J. W. Backus ; IBM Corp., Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, N. Y. ; W. P. Heising

The fundamental concepts of FORTRAN, the most widely used high-level, scientific programming language, are set forth and the significant characteristics are described in historical order from inception of FORTRAN in 1954 to the present time. The basic problem of how to get high quality programming from an-easy- to-write high-level language is emphasized.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Electronic Computers  (Volume:EC-13 ,  Issue: 4 )