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A CMOS Temperature-to-Frequency Converter With an Inaccuracy of Less Than \pm \hbox {0.5},^{\circ}{\hbox {C}} (3 \sigma ) From -\hbox {40},^{\circ}\hbox {C} to 105 ,^{\circ}\hbox {C}

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2 Author(s)
Makinwa, K.A.A. ; Fac. of Electr. Eng., Math. & Comput. Sci., Delft Univ. of Technol. ; Snoeij, M.F.

This paper describes a temperature-to-frequency converter (TFC) implemented in a standard CMOS process. Its output frequency is determined by the phase-shift of an electrothermal filter, which consists of a heater and a temperature sensor realized in the substrate of a standard CMOS chip. The filter's phase-shift is determined by the geometry of the thermal path between the heater and the sensor, and by the temperature-dependent rate at which heat diffuses through the substrate. The resulting temperature-dependent phase-shift is quite well-defined, since filter geometry is defined by lithography, while the thermal diffusivity of the high-purity lightly-doped silicon substrate is essentially constant. The filter was used as the frequency-determining component of a frequency-locked loop (FLL), whose output frequency is then a well-defined function of temperature. Using this approach, a TFC with an inaccuracy of plusmn0.5degC (3sigma) over the industrial temperature range (-40degC to 105 degC) has been realized in a standard 0.7-mum CMOS process

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Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:41 ,  Issue: 12 )