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High frame rate imaging system for limited diffraction array beam imaging with square-wave aperture weightings high frame rate imaging system for limited diffraction array beam imaging with square-wave aperture weightings

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3 Author(s)
Lu, J.-y. ; Dept. of Bioeng., Toledo Univ., OH ; Jiqi Cheng ; Wang Jing

A general-purpose high frame rate (HFR) medical imaging system has been developed. This system has 128 independent linear transmitters, each of which is capable of producing an arbitrary broadband (about 0.05-10 MHz) waveform of up to plusmn144 V peak voltage on a 75-ohm resistive load using a 12-bit/40-MHz digital-to-analog converter. The system also has 128 independent, broadband (about 0.25-10 MHz), and time-variable-gain receiver channels, each of which has a 12-bit/40-MHz analog-to-digital converter and up to 512 MB of memory. The system is controlled by a personal computer (PC), and radio frequency echo data of each channel are transferred to the same PC via a standard USB 2.0 port for image reconstructions. Using the HFR imaging system, we have developed a new limited-diffraction array beam imaging method with square-wave aperture voltage weightings. With this method, in principle, only one or two transmitters are required to excite a fully populated two-dimensional (2-D) array transducer to achieve an equivalent dynamic focusing in both transmission and reception to reconstruct a high-quality three-dimensional image without the need of the time delays of traditional beam focusing arid steering, potentially simplifying the transmitter subsystem of an imager. To validate the method, for simplicity, 2-D imaging experiments were performed using the system. In the in vitro experiment, a custom-made, 128-element, 0.32-mm pitch, 3.5-MHz center frequency linear array transducer with about 50% fractional bandwidth was used to reconstruct images of an ATS 539 tissue-mimicking phantom at an axial distance of 130 mm with a field of view of more than 90deg. In the in vivo experiment of a human heart, images with a field of view of more than 90deg at 120-mm axial distance were obtained with a 128-element, 2.5-MHz center frequency, 0.15-mm pitch Acusori V2 phased array. To ensure that the system was operated under the limits set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, th- - e mechanical index, thermal index, and acoustic output were measured. Results show that higher-quality images can be reconstructed with the square-wave aperture weighting method due to an increased penetration depth as compared to the exact weighting method developed previously, and a frame rate of 486 per second was achieved at a pulse repetition frequency of about 5348 Hz for the human heart

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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:53 ,  Issue: 10 )