Scheduled System Maintenance:
Some services will be unavailable Sunday, March 29th through Monday, March 30th. We apologize for the inconvenience.
By Topic

Three-Dimensional Optical Circuits Consisting of Waveguide Films and Optical Z-Connections

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

6 Author(s)
Yoshimura, T. ; Dept. of Electron., Tokyo Univ. of Technol., Hachioji ; Miyazaki, M. ; Miyamoto, Y. ; Shimoda, N.
more authors

Two types of three-dimensional (3-D) optical circuits based on waveguide films are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Type 1 is "Stacked waveguide films with 45deg mirrors". Waveguide films with 70-mum-thick undercladding layers and 32-mum-wide cores with air cladding are fabricated by the built-in mask method using photo-definable materials. The films are stacked by contacting their undercladding layers. Optical Z-connections are formed by aligning the 45deg mirrors in upper and lower films. The mirror-to-mirror distance is ~170 mum. When a probe beam of 650 nm or 1.3 mum in wavelength is introduced into input in the first film, it is transmitted to the second film through optical Z-connection and is observed at output. Loss at the optical Z-connection for 1.3-mum wavelength is ~14 dB, which might be due to leakage of probe beams reflected from the mirror with large diverging angles. Type 2 is "Waveguide films with vertical waveguides". After coating a photo-refractive layer of 500-mum thickness on the back of a cladding layer of a waveguide film, a 405-nm wavelength write beam is introduced into input. Then, a vertical waveguide of 3-D self-organized lightwave network (3-D SOLNET) is grown in the photo-refractive layer above a 45deg mirror. A probe beam guided in the vertical waveguide is observed with a beam size close to that in the core of the waveguide film. Loss reduction at the optical Z-connection is expected by combining optical circuits of Types 1 and 2 to insert the 3-D SOLNET between waveguide films as well as by decreasing cladding layer thicknesses

Published in:

Lightwave Technology, Journal of  (Volume:24 ,  Issue: 11 )