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Wholes and parts-a systems approach

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1 Author(s)
J. T. Boardman ; Fac. of Technol., Portsmouth Univ., UK

This paper examines some of the properties of abstract systems. Structures of physical systems (such as atoms, buildings, etc.) are easy to understand and study, but abstract systems (human centered) can not be studied so easily. Ideas concerning parts, wholes and structures are presented, together with system diagrams (systemigrams). This paper outlines three examples where technology management has been analyzed with a systems approach. It is important to view the whole system under observation when considering its parts and its environment. Its environment is set by its boundaries, so deciding where boundaries lie in an abstract system is also discussed

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics  (Volume:25 ,  Issue: 7 )