Skip to Main Content
The authors describe a new method which uses sonomicrometry and the statistical technique of multidimensional scaling (MDS) to measure the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of multiple cardiac locations. The authors refer to this new method as sonomicrometry array localization (SAL). The new method differs from standard sonomicrometry in that each piezoelectric transducer element is used as both transmitter and receiver and the set of intertransducer element distances is measured. MDS calculates the 3D coordinates of each sonomicrometry transducer element from the set of intertransducer element distances. The feasibility of this new method was tested with mathematical simulations which demonstrated the ability of MDS to compensate for signal error and missing intertransducer element distances. The authors describe the design elements of a modified digitally controlled sonomicrometer in which a single transducer element can sequentially broadcast to as many as 8 receiver elements. That design is used to validate SAL in a water bath and in ex vivo and living hearts. Correlation with caliper measurement in the water bath (y int.=3.91±3.36 min, slope=1.04±0.05, r 2=0.969±0.027) and with radiography in ex vivo (y int.=-0.87±0.92 mm, slope=0.97±0.02, r 2=0.960±0.023) and in vivo hearts (y int.=2.98±2.59 mm, slope=1.01±0.06, r 2=0.953±0.031) was excellent. Sonomicrometry array localization is able to accurately measure the 3D coordinates of multiple cardiac locations. It can potentially measure myocardial deformation and remodeling after ischemic or valvular injury.