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Machine learning in control of functional electrical stimulation systems for locomotion

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5 Author(s)
Kostov, A. ; Div. of Neurosci., Alberta Univ., Edmonton, Alta., Canada ; Andrews, B.J. ; Popovic, D.B. ; Stein, R.B.
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Two machine learning techniques were evaluated for automatic design of a rule-based control of functional electrical stimulation (FES) for locomotion of spinal cord injured humans. The task was to learn the invariant characteristics of the relationship between sensory information and the FES-control signal by using off-line supervised training. Sensory signals were recorded using pressure sensors installed in the insoles of a subject's shoes and goniometers attached across the joints of the affected leg. The FES-control consisted of pulses corresponding to time intervals when the subject pressed on the manual push-button to deliver the stimulation during FES-assisted ambulation. The machine learning techniques used were the adaptive logic network (ALN) and the inductive learning algorithm (IL). Results to date suggest that, given the same training data, the IL learned faster than the ALN while both performed the test rapidly. The generalization was estimated by measuring the test errors and it was better with an ALN, especially if past points were used to reflect the time dimension. Both techniques were able to predict future stimulation events. An advantage of the ALN over the IL was that ALN's can be retrained with new data without losing previously collected knowledge. The advantages of the IL over the ALN were that the IL produces small, explicit, comprehensible trees and that the relative importance of each sensory contribution can be quantified.

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:42 ,  Issue: 6 )