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Broadband active microstrip antenna design with the simplified real frequency technique

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3 Author(s)
An, Hongming ; POLY-GRAMES, Ecole Polytech. de Montreal, Que., Canada ; Nauwelaers, B.K.J.C. ; Van de Capelle, A.R.

This paper deals with the design of broadband active microstrip antennas where the amplifier is integrated with the radiator. Theoretically sound definitions for gain and noise figure of the active antenna are introduced, and their relationships with the definitions for the composing circuit and radiator parts are explained. A sequential design procedure is presented that allows the straightforward and optimal design of transmitting and receiving antennas with multiple active stages, taking into account input and output matching, the gain-versus-frequency curve as well as the noise performance. The theoretical concepts are illustrated with two examples: one of a transmitting active antenna and one of a receiving antenna. The former one is a two-stage design that achieves nearly 25% of bandwidth with regard to gain and matching and 24 dB gain improvement as compared to the matched passive antenna. The second one is a receiving antenna (one stage) with a measured noise figure of 1.2 dB in a bandwidth of over 17% and a gain improvement of 11.9 dB over the corresponding passive antenna. Finally co- and cross-polar radiation patterns in E- and H-plane prove that the antennas also have favorable radiation characteristics in a wide bandwidth (at least 18%)

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:42 ,  Issue: 12 )