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Phased array antenna analysis with the hybrid finite element method

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2 Author(s)
McGrath, D.T. ; USAF Philips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM, USA ; Pyati, V.P.

A new analysis technique for infinite phased array antennas was developed and demonstrated. It consists of the finite element method (FEM) in combination with integral equation radiation conditions and a novel periodic boundary condition for 3-D FEM grids. Accurate modeling of rectangular, circular and circular-coaxial feeds is accomplished by enforcing continuity between the FEM solution and several waveguide modes across an aperture in the array's ground plane. The radiation condition above the array is enforced by a periodic integral equation in the form of a Floquet mode summation, thus reducing the solution to that of a single array unit cell. The periodic boundary condition at unit cell side walls is enforced through a matrix transformation. That mathematically “folds” opposing side walls onto each other with a phase shift appropriate to the array lattice and scan angle. The unit cell electric field is expanded in vector finite elements. Galerkin's method is used to cast the problem as a matrix equation, which is solved by the conjugate gradient method. A general-purpose computer code was developed and validated for cases of open-ended waveguides, microstrip patches, clad monopoles and printed flared notches, showing that the analysis method is accurate and versatile

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:42 ,  Issue: 12 )