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Performance and modeling of broadband LiNbO3 traveling wave optical intensity modulators

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5 Author(s)
Gopalakrishnan, G.K. ; Maryland Adv. Dev. Lab., Naval Res. Lab., Washington, DC, USA ; Burns, W.K. ; McElhanon, R.W. ; Bulmer, C.H.
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The design, fabrication and characterization of a traveling wave Ti:LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder interferometric modulator are discussed. The dependence of the velocity match condition on electrode thickness and wall angle is demonstrated experimentally and with finite element calculations. A set of test electrode structures is fabricated to study electrical losses in the modulator electrode. Loss coefficients are assigned to different sections of the device, and dielectric and radiative losses are shown to play an important role at high frequencies. This information is used in conjunction with finite-element calculations to develop accurate models for both the electrical and optical responses. The frequency dependence of the half-wave voltage is measured and shown to be in good agreement with a model

Published in:

Lightwave Technology, Journal of  (Volume:12 ,  Issue: 10 )

Date of Publication:

Oct 1994

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