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Eigenstructure techniques for 2-D angle estimation with uniform circular arrays

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2 Author(s)
C. P. Mathews ; Sch. of Electr. Eng., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN, USA ; M. D. Zoltowski

The problem of 2D angle estimation (azimuth and elevation) of multiple plane waves incident on a uniform circular array (UCA) of antennas is considered. Two eigenstructure-based estimation algorithms that operate in beamspace and employ phase mode excitation-based beamformers have been developed. The first, UCA-RB-MUSIC, is a beamspace version of MUSIC that offers numerous advantages over element space operation, including reduced computation, as subspace estimates are obtained via real-valued eigendecompositions, enhanced performance in correlated source scenarios due to the attendant forward-backward averaging effect, and the applicability of Root-MUSIC. The second, UCA-ESPRIT, represents a significant advance in the area of 2D angle estimation. It is a novel closed-form algorithm that provides automatically paired source azimuth and elevation estimates. With UCA-ESPRIT, the eigenvalues of a matrix have the form μi=sin θiejφ(i/), where θsub i/ and φi are the elevation and azimuth angles, respectively. Expensive search procedures being thus avoided, UCA-ESPRIT is superior to existing 2D angle estimation algorithms with respect to computational complexity. Finally, asymptotic expressions for the variances of the element space MUSIC and UCA-RB-MUSIC estimators for the 2D scenario have been derived. Results of simulations that compare UCA-RB-MUSIC and UCA-ESPRIT and also validate the theoretical performance expressions are presented

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing  (Volume:42 ,  Issue: 9 )