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A model to determine the degree of penetration and energy cost of large scale utility interactive photovoltaic systems

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2 Author(s)
Rahman, S. ; Bradley Dept. of Electr. Eng., Virginia Polytech. Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA, USA ; Bouzguenda, M.

The objective is to determine the value of photovoltaic (PV) energy when large PV systems are incorporated into the electric utility generation mix. Performance analysis shows that hydro availability, generation mix, maintenance schedules, ramping rates, fuel costs, spinning reserve requirements, PV power fluctuations, and geographical diversification are among the major factors that influence the economic and operational value of PV systems for large-scale applications. Economic analysis of various PV systems shows that PV energy cost (c/kWh) depends primarily on the PV capacity factor and capital cost, while the level of PV penetration is influenced by system characteristics. It was found that for a $2000/kW capital cost, the energy costs are 15.3 c/kWh and 1.4 c/kWh, for 10.55% and 25% capacity factors, respectively. Additionally, the study shows that the breakeven cost for the PV system ranges from $1211/kW to $361/kW, depending on the resource availability, generation mix, and fuel costs

Published in:

Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:9 ,  Issue: 2 )