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A comparison of trace-sampling techniques for multi-megabyte caches

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3 Author(s)
Kessler, R.E. ; Comput. Sci. Dept., Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI, USA ; Hill, M.D. ; Wood, D.A.

The paper compares the trace-sampling techniques of set sampling and time sampling. Using the multi-billion reference traces of A. Borg et al. (1990), we apply both techniques to multi-megabyte caches, where sampling is most valuable. We evaluate whether either technique meets a 10% sampling goal: a method meets this goal if, at least 90% of the time, it estimates the trace's true misses per instruction with ⩽10% relative error using ⩽10% of the trace. Results for these traces and caches show that set sampling meets the 10% sampling goal, while time sampling does not. We also find that cold-start bias in time samples is most effectively reduced by the technique of D.A. Wood et al. (1991). Nevertheless, overcoming cold-start bias requires tens of millions of consecutive references

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Computers, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:43 ,  Issue: 6 )