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Optical quantum noise treated with classical electrical network theory

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2 Author(s)
E. Berglind ; Dept. of Microwave Eng., R. Inst. of Technol., Stockholm, Sweden ; L. Gillner

A field noise spectral density matrix for the noise from a linear optical device, modeled as an optical multiport, is derived semi-classically. The noise is formulated in the scattering parameters, population inversion factor, and internal efficiency of the device. From this noise expression, a new equation for the amplified spontaneous emission spectral density from an optical amplifier is derived. This equation is more general than those previously published. The derivations are accomplished with the aid of methods from ordinary (classical) electrical network theory and only one quantum mechanical result regarding the noise from a conductance. As a result, the first-mentioned noise expression also includes the so-called vacuum field fluctuations. Further, the current noise spectrum of a square-law detector is derived with classical methods. The optical input to the detector includes the vacuum field fluctuations, which are shown to be the cause of the detector shot noise. Here, a second quantum mechanical result has to be employed, viz., that the vacuum field fluctuations cannot be detected alone. The results in this paper agree with the special cases found in the literature. The noise expressions are well suited for examination of the optical noise performance of arbitrary linear optical networks including, e.g., amplifiers, attenuators, isolators, reflections, filters, and couplers

Published in:

IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics  (Volume:30 ,  Issue: 3 )