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Characteristics of S-shaped waveguide structures by the annealed proton exchange process in LiNbO3

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2 Author(s)
Januar, I. ; Center for Optoelectron. Comput. Syst., Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO, USA ; Mickelson, A.R.

The loss of S-shaped waveguide bends in annealed proton-exchanged LiNbO3 integrated optical devices is found to be dependent on the length of thermal annealing time. The minimum transition length required in order to have losses as low as 0.2 dB is 2.0 mm for a 0.1-mm lateral offset. Intersecting waveguides based on S-shaped structures have been characterized for passive crossovers. An angle greater than 6° is required to provide a crosstalk of less than -30 dB. At a particular angle, intersecting waveguides offer the possibility of making a 3-dB coupler if an insertion loss of 1.2 dB is not a big concern. Zero-gap couplers based on S-shaped structures have been characterized for applications as 3-dB couplers as well. This type of 3-dB coupler has a much lower insertion loss of roughly 0.4-0.5 dB. Both 3-dB intersecting waveguides and 3-dB zero-gap couplers are less sensitive to wavelength variations

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Lightwave Technology, Journal of  (Volume:11 ,  Issue: 12 )