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Experience with use of feedback in FES systems

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1 Author(s)
V. Popovic ; Fac. of Electr. Eng., Belgrade Univ., Yugoslavia

Summary form only given. Technology for functional electrical simulation (FES) to restore movement in paralyzed limbs is discussed. In FES systems for restoration of standing and locomotion, the following sensory information is of interest: ground reaction forces and their spatial and temporal distribution, angular position and velocities, and relative position of the body or body parts towards the direction of the gravity vector. Three types of sensors that have been tested in FES system are described. These sensors are artificial, nonimplantable sensors; artificial, implantable sensors; and natural sensors.<>

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IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine  (Volume:11 ,  Issue: 4 )