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Residence time of metal ions generated from microsecond vacuum arcs

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2 Author(s)
Tsuruta, K. ; Dept. of Electr. & Electron. Eng., Ibaraki Univ., Japan ; Yamazaki, N.

Vacuum gaps of 1 mm with lead or copper cathode are fired by a 13 μs duration sinusoidal arc or a 10 μs duration exponentially-decaying arc, and time-of-flight (TOF) ion measurements are made at variable times after the arc ignition. At the lead cathode, Pb+ and Pb++ ions are generated and the upper limit on the times for Pb+ ion detection are 48 μs and 46 μs from the arc ignition for the sinusoidal and exponential arcs, respectively. At the copper cathode, Cu+, Cu++, and Cu+++ ions are generated and detected within 15 μs and 13 μs from the arc ignition for the sinusoidal and exponential arcs, respectively. The residence time of the Pb+ ions in the ion acceleration region is approximately 35 μs, regardless of the waveform of the arc current. The residence time of the copper ions, described by the time constant of the time-of-flight ion current delay characteristics, is 3 μs

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Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:21 ,  Issue: 5 )