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In most computer-controlled pharmacokinetic model-driven drug infusion pumps, simulation of a linear compartmental pharmacokinetic model is used to compute the rate of intravenous drug infusion required to achieve setpoint central compartment (plasma) drug concentrations. For many drugs, it has been suggested that it is the drug concentration in a hypothetical "effect" compartment, rather than in the plasma, that should be manipulated to achieve maximum control over pharmacologic action. Controlling the effect compartment drug concentration is algorithmically more difficult than controlling the central compartment drug concentration because of the time delay between administration of drug into the central compartment and its subsequent appearance in the effect compartment. The authors present a model-based dosing algorithm for use in pharmacokinetic model-driven drug infusion devices that target the theoretical effect compartment drug concentration.