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The four-electrode resistivity technique in anisotropic media: theoretical analysis and application on myocardial tissue in vivo

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4 Author(s)
Steendijk, P. ; Dept. of Cardiology, Leiden Univ. Hospital, Netherlands ; Mur, Gerrit ; van der Velde, E.T. ; Baan, Jan

Several aspects of the 4-electrode resistivity technique were studied with special emphasis on the theoretical determination of penetration depth and sample volume in anisotropic media such as (cardiac) muscle. Moreover, the presence of a thin disturbing layer on top of the medium under study was analyzed. A 4-electrode sensor was developed for the measurement of local myocardial resistivity in 2 orthogonal directions. The sensor was applied to the epicardium of anesthetized open chest dogs and, as an example, results are given on the frequency dependence (5-60 kHz) and the changes during the cardiac cycle of longitudinal and transverse myocardial resistivity.

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:40 ,  Issue: 11 )