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Solar zenith angle effects on forest canopy hemispherical reflectances calculated with a geometric-optical bidirectional reflectance model

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2 Author(s)
Schaaf, C.B. ; Geophys. Directorate, Philips Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA, USA ; Strahler, A.H.

The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) provided by the Li-Strahler geometric-optical forest canopy model has been integrated to provide spectral instantaneous hemispherical reflectances of sparsely vegetated surfaces. Further integration over the Sun's zenith angles can yield daily or longer interval hemispherical reflectances as well. A variety of simulated canopies were modeled with varying solar angles. In all cases, as the geometric-optical model introduced increased shadowing of the surface with increased solar zenith angle, the direct-beam hemispherical surface reflectance gradually decreased. The hemispherical reflectance values are direct beam calculations and do not directly include canopy multiple scattering and leaf specularity or consider the impact of diffuse irradiance. These limitations are acceptable for sparse canopies, in which 3D shadowing effects are large. However, radiative transfer calculations have shown that these phenomena must be incorporated before truly realistic modeling of hemispherical surface reflectances can be achieved for dense canopies

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:31 ,  Issue: 4 )