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Experiments with low-level speculative computation based on multiple branch prediction

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2 Author(s)
Holtmann, U. ; Dept. of Comput. Sci., Tech. Univ. Braunschweig, Germany ; Ernst, R.

Coprocessor design is one application of high-level synthesis. We want to focus on high-performance coprocessors to speed up time critical parts in hardware-software codesign of embedded controllers. Time critical software parts often contain nested loops, often with data-dependent branches and data-dependent number of iterations. When (loop) pipelining is employed for high performance, the control dependencies become a dominant limitation to pipeline utilization. Branch prediction is a possible approach, but is usually restricted to few instructions and to one branch because of hardware and control overhead. Multiple branch prediction and speculative computation take a more global view on the program flow. We give practical examples of how speculative computation with multiple branch prediction increases performance far beyond a usual ASAP scheduling based on a CDFG. For scheduling, speculative computation requires a modification of the CDFG and, for the allocation phase, the insertion of register sets to save the processor status. The controller needs slight modification. We conclude that manual application of our approach will in general be too difficult, such that it can only be used in connection with synthesis.<>

Published in:

Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:1 ,  Issue: 3 )