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Analysis of N×N passive optical star coupler based on the normal modes of N input waveguides

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2 Author(s)
Lee, K.K.H. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Ottawa Univ., Ont., Canada ; Steenaart, W.

An integrated passive N×N optical star coupler on silicon wafer is described. Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs) are analyzed and utilized as the input and output waveguides of the N×N coupler. Combining the exact solutions of the slab ARROW waveguide with the effective index method, a 5×5 coupler is analyzed. In the slab waveguide analysis, the input waveguides are coupled to their neighbors. The interaction of the waveguides is described in terms of the normal modes of propagation. The resultant field distribution is then diffracted into the free space region which separates the input and output sections. The radiation illuminates the receiving aperture from which the receiving N waveguides branch out, each output element obtaining equal power levels. Different types of loss such as spillover loss and mismatch loss were analyzed and estimated for N=5. A 5×5 star coupler with a transmission efficiency of 56% at a wavelength of 1.3 μm is achievable

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Lightwave Technology, Journal of  (Volume:10 ,  Issue: 12 )