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81.2-1991  -  IEEE Guide for Measurement of Impedance and Safety Characteristics of Large, Extended or Interconnected Grounding Systems

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Practical instrumentation methods are presented for measuring the ac characteristics of large,extended or interconnected grounding systems. Measurements of impedance to remote earth, step andtouch potentials, and current distributions are covered for grounding systems ranging in complexity from small grids (less than 900m 2), with only a few connected overhead or direct burial bare concentric (2) neutrals, to large grids (greater than 20 000m 2), with many connected neutrals, overhead ground wires (sky wires), counterpoises, grid tie conductors, cable shields, and metallic pipes. This standard addresses measurement safety; earth-return mutual errors; low-current measurements; power-system staged faults; communication and control cable transfer impedance; current distribution (current splits) in the grounding system; step, touch, mesh, and profile measurements; the foot-equivalent electrode earth resistance; and instrumentation characteristics and limitations.