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High Rate Data Synchronization in GALS SoCs

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3 Author(s)
Dobkin, R. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Technion-Israel Inst. of Technol., Haifa ; Ginosar, R. ; Sotiriou, C.P.

Globally asynchronous, locally synchronous (GALS) systems-on-chip (SoCs) may be prone to synchronization failures if the delay of their locally-generated clock tree is not considered. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the problem and proposes a novel solution. The problem is analyzed considering the magnitude of clock tree delays, the cycle times of the GALS module, and the complexity of the asynchronous interface controllers using a timed signal transition graph (STG) approach. In some cases, the problem can be solved by extracting all the delays and verifying whether the system is susceptible to metastability. In other cases, when high data bandwidth is not required, matched-delay asynchronous ports may be employed. A novel architecture for synchronizing inter-modular communications in GALS, based on locally delayed latching (LDL), is described. LDL synchronization does not require pausable clocking, is insensitive to clock tree delays, and supports high data rates. It replaces complex global timing constraints with simpler localized ones. Three different LDL ports are presented. The risk of metastability in the synchronizer is analyzed in a technology-independent manner

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Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:14 ,  Issue: 10 )