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Signal Power Distribution in the Azimuth, Elevation and Time Delay Domains in Urban Environments for Various Elevations of Base Station Antenna

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9 Author(s)
Blaunstein, N. ; Dept. of Commun. Syst. Eng., Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer Sheva ; Toeltsch, M.. ; Laurila, J. ; Bonek, E.
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We investigate signal power distribution in the azimuth-of-arrival, elevation-of-arrival and time-of-arrival domains for various positions of the base station antenna located below the rooftop as well as at rooftop level. This article is based on a multiparametric stochastic model we introduced in 2004, as combination of a statistical part, describing an array of buildings randomly distributed at the terrain, and a waveguide model, describing a grid of straight streets with buildings along them. Joint signal power distributions in azimuth-time delay and elevation-azimuth planes are obtained and compared to high-resolution 3-D measurements carried out in downtown Helsinki. A good agreement between theoretical predictions and the measurements is obtained basically, and also regarding the wave-guiding effect and antenna height dependencies. A satisfactory physical explanation, which accounts for the character of the specific building topography, the height and tilt of the antennas, is found. Finally, we present a numerical experiment of changing the base station antenna height, its directivity, and tilt. By this we show that the proposed stochastic approach allows to predict and control a-priori main parameters of smart antenna based only on knowledge of specific features of built-up terrain

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:54 ,  Issue: 10 )