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Closed-Loop Nonlinear Modeling of Wideband \Sigma \Delta Fractional- N Frequency Synthesizers

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3 Author(s)
Hedayati, H. ; Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ ; Bakkaloglu, B. ; Khalil, W.

Wideband low-noise SigmaDelta fractional-N synthesizers pose several design challenges due to the nonlinear time-varying nature of synthesizer building blocks such as phase frequency detectors (PFDs), charge pump, and frequency dividers. Loop nonlinearities can increase close-in phase noise and enhance spurious tones due to intermodulation of high-frequency quantization noise and tonal content; therefore, an accurate simulation model is critical for successful implementation of loop parameters and bandwidth widening techniques. In this paper a closed-loop nonlinear simulation model for fractional-N synthesizers is presented. Inherent nonuniform sampling of the PFD is modeled through an event-driven dual-iteration-based technique. The proposed technique generates a vector of piecewise linear time-voltage pairs, defining the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) control voltage. This method also lends itself to modeling of cyclostationary thermal and flicker noise generated by time-varying charge-pump current pulses. A flexible third-order SigmaDelta modulated RF synthesizer core with integrated loop filter and LC-tank VCO is designed and fabricated in 0.13-mum CMOS process in order to validate the technique experimentally. The proposed modeling technique was able to predict in-band spur power levels with 1.8-dB accuracy, and spur frequency offsets with lower than 400-Hz accuracy with several programmable nonidealities enabled

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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:54 ,  Issue: 10 )