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StackPi: New Packet Marking and Filtering Mechanisms for DDoS and IP Spoofing Defense

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3 Author(s)
Yaar, A. ; Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA ; Perrig, A. ; Song, D.

Today's Internet hosts are threatened by large-scale distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. The path identification (Pi) DDoS defense scheme has recently been proposed as a deterministic packet marking scheme that allows a DDoS victim to filter out attack packets on a per packet basis with high accuracy after only a few attack packets are received (Yaar , 2003). In this paper, we propose the StackPi marking, a new packet marking scheme based on Pi, and new filtering mechanisms. The StackPi marking scheme consists of two new marking methods that substantially improve Pi's incremental deployment performance: Stack-based marking and write-ahead marking. Our scheme almost completely eliminates the effect of a few legacy routers on a path, and performs 2-4 times better than the original Pi scheme in a sparse deployment of Pi-enabled routers. For the filtering mechanism, we derive an optimal threshold strategy for filtering with the Pi marking. We also develop a new filter, the PiIP filter, which can be used to detect Internet protocol (IP) spoofing attacks with just a single attack packet. Finally, we discuss in detail StackPi's compatibility with IP fragmentation, applicability in an IPv6 environment, and several other important issues relating to potential deployment of StackPi

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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on  (Volume:24 ,  Issue: 10 )