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Thermal Modeling, Analysis, and Management in VLSI Circuits: Principles and Methods

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2 Author(s)
M. Pedram ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA ; S. Nazarian

The growing packing density and power consumption of very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits have made thermal effects one of the most important concerns of VLSI designers. The increasing variability of key process parameters in nanometer CMOS technologies has resulted in larger impact of the substrate and metal line temperatures on the reliability and performance of the devices and interconnections. Recent data shows that more than 50% of all integrated circuit failures are related to thermal issues. This paper presents a brief discussion of key sources of power dissipation and their temperature relation in CMOS VLSI circuits, and techniques for full-chip temperature calculation with special attention to its implications on the design of high-performance, low-power VLSI circuits. The paper is concluded with an overview of techniques to improve the full-chip thermal integrity by means of off-chip versus on-chip and static versus adaptive methods

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Proceedings of the IEEE  (Volume:94 ,  Issue: 8 )