Cart (Loading....) | Create Account
Close category search window
 

Progress in Development of Test Oscillators for Crystal Units

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

1 Author(s)
Koerner, L.F. ; Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., Murray Hill, N.J.

Early crystal unit test oscillators as conceived some 20 years ago were principally duplicates of the actual equipment in which the crystal units were to be utilized, a practice which resulted in a large variety of test circuits and procedures for testing. It is now recognized that a knowledge of the equivalent electrical elements making up the crystal unit is essential to the circuit engineer, and that the older conception of frequency and activity, the latter being an attempt to express the quality of a crystal unit in terms of a particular oscillator circuit, do not define adequately its characteristics. The equivalent electrical circuit of the crystal unit contains essentially a resistance, an inductance, and 2 capacitances, which together with frequency define the performance of the unit. Crystal units are available in the frequency range from about 1,000 cycles to over 100 Mc. Their resistance range may vary from less than 10 ohms to over 150,000 ohms, the inductance from a few millihenries to nearly 100,000 henries and the capacitances from about 0.001 μμf to 50 μμf. Modern test oscillators, with frequency and capacitance measuring apparatus as auxiliary equipment, will measure these quantities with accuracies sufficient to meet present needs. The transmission measuring circuit also is described and is proposed as the standard reference circuit for comparison with the test oscillators.

Published in:

Proceedings of the IRE  (Volume:39 ,  Issue: 1 )

Date of Publication:

Jan. 1951

Need Help?


IEEE Advancing Technology for Humanity About IEEE Xplore | Contact | Help | Terms of Use | Nondiscrimination Policy | Site Map | Privacy & Opting Out of Cookies

A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest professional association for the advancement of technology.
© Copyright 2014 IEEE - All rights reserved. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions.