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After accepting a definition for personnel administration, it is emphasized that the responsibility for a personnel program rests upon all executives and supervisors of an organization, and that an effective program requires the co-operation and understanding of all members of the organization. Typical personnel activities are listed. Definitions for basic research, applied research, and development are given, and it is indicated that all three types of effort require persons who are extremely well trained In specific fields of endeavor, persons with creative ability, imagination, and originality of a high order. Conditions conducive to the productivity of such persons are outlined. It is then stressed that general personnel activities are applicable to research and development organizations, and, in addition, specialized functions are required to realize the conditions conducive to the happiness and productivity of scientists and engineers. However, research scientists and development engineers must actively participate in the personnel functions of a research and development group. The methods of discharging personnel responsibilities employed by two research and development organizations are contrasted. It is emphasized, however, that, with any method, effective personnel administration must be a service, not a control.