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Data obtained from the Rutherford scattering experiment are used to present a simple picture of the structure of the atom. This picture is shown to be in agreement with the experimental findings on the electrical nature of matter. On the assumption that the particles which make up the nucleus (neucleons) are neutrons and protons, a "building-up" of the various atoms is explained and a system of nuclear nomenclature is developed. The model of an atom as a central nucleus of neutrons and protons surrounded by outer shells of electrons is found to fit in with the results of many physical and chemical experiments. In particular, the results of experimental spectroscopy yield quantitative agreement with certain calculations made on this atomic model. Bohr's theory of the hydrogen atom is developed in simple terms and the equation for energy level in the H-atom is derived. Excitation and ionization of atoms are described in terms of the Bohr model of the atom.