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An analysis of rectifier operation in principal circuits is made. The introduction of linear equivalent diode resistance values permits a simplified and accurate treatment of circuits containing high-vacuum diodes and series resistance. The evaluation of these equivalent resistance values and a discussion of emission characteristics of oxide-coated cathodes precede the circuit analysis. Generalized curve families for three principal condenser-input circuits are given to permit the rapid solution of rectifier problems in practical circuits without inaccuracies due to idealizing assumptions. The data presented in this paper have been derived on the basis of a sinusoidal voltage source. It is apparent that the graphic analysis may be applied to circuits with nonsinusoidal voltage sources or intermittent pulse waves. It is also permissible to consider only the wave section during conduction time and alter the remaining wave form at will. Complicated wave shapes may thus be replaced in many cases by a substantially sinusoidal voltage of higher frequency and intermittent occurrence as indicated by shape and duration of the highest voltage peak. The applications of these principles have often explained large discrepancies from expected results as being caused by series or diode resistance and excessive peak-current demands. Practical experience over many years has proved the correctness and accuracy of the generalized characteristics of condenser-input circuits.