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Formulas for the Skin Effect

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1 Author(s)
H. A. Wheeler ; Hazeltine Service Corporation, Little Neck, N.Y.

At radio frequencies, the penetration of currents and magnetic fields into the surface of conductors is governed by the skin effect. Many formulas are simplified if expressed in terms of the "depth of penetration," which has merely the dimension of length but involves the frequency and the conductivity and permeability of the conductive material. Another useful parameter is the "surface resistivity" determined by the skin effect, which has simply the dimension of resistance. These parameters are given for representative metals by a convenient chart covering a wide range of frequency. The "incremental-inductance rule" is given for determining not only the effective resistance of a circuit but also the added resistance caused by conductors in the neighborhood of the circuit. Simple formulas are given for the resistance of wires, transmission lines, and coils; for the shielding effect of sheet metal; for the resistance caused by a plane or cylindrical shield near a coil; and for the properties of a transformer with a laminated iron core.

Published in:

Proceedings of the IRE  (Volume:30 ,  Issue: 9 )
IEEE RFIC Virtual Journal
IEEE RFID Virtual Journal