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Whole-Cell Sensing for a Harmful Bloom-Forming Microscopic Alga by Measuring Antibody–Antigen Forces

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7 Author(s)
A. S. Lee ; Dept. of Chem. Eng., Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA ; M. Mahapatro ; D. A. Caron ; A. A. G. Requicha
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Aureococcus anophagefferens, a harmful bloom-forming alga responsible for brown tides in estuaries of the Middle Atlantic U.S., has been investigated by atomic force microscopy for the first time, using probes functionalized with a monoclonal antibody specific for the alga. The rupture force between a single monoclonal antibody and the surface of A. anophagefferens was experimentally found to be 246 plusmn 11 pN at the load rate of 12 nN/s. Force histograms for A. anophagefferens and other similarly-sized algae are presented and analyzed. The results illustrate the effects of load rates, and demonstrate that force-distance measurements can be used to build biosensors with high signal-to-noise ratios for A. anophagefferens. The methods described in this paper can be used, in principle, to construct sensors with single-cell resolution for arbitrary cells for which monoclonal antibodies are available

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IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience  (Volume:5 ,  Issue: 3 )